A Chinese team, through experiments determines the presence of multiple solitary optical waves that can split optical beams.
The first theoretical paradigm representing dark photovoltaic spatial solitons was designed by researchers and related observations by Chinese physicist Yuhong Zhang and his team will be published in EPJ D. The shape of dark solitons, after travelling through the crystal remains the same. The dark solitons induce waveguides, which can be used to split and reconfigure the optical beams.
Dark solitons are synthesized in photorefractive crystals. Following the incoming beam of light, their refractive index is being decreased by these crystals owing to the increase in optical intensity. The incoming beam will therefore get defocused, the effect known as non-linear self-defocusing. When the diffraction of an incoming beam at the crystal’s notch is optimized by the self-defocusing effect, the crystal, dark solitons emerge. These dark solitons are capable of stimulating waveguides for light beams, thereby enabling its consistent movement across photorefractive crystals.
The researchers completed the first numerical simulation based on beam propagation method to create a paradigm representing the creation and evolution of 1-D multiple dark solitons within a photorefractive crystal. However, multiple dark solitons can be generated by expanding the width of the crystal’s dark notch located at the entrance of the crystal.
Based on the initial beam phase or amplitude, these solitons were produced in either even or odd numbers. From the earlier observations, the researchers determined that during the generation of multiple solitons, there is only minimal space between them. In addition, with respect to the increasing distance of the solitons from the main dark notch entry, the solutions were extended and less visible.