Editorial Feature

How Annealing Methods Improve Optical Component Manufacture

Annealing procedures play an essential role in the fabrication of optical components. These heat treatments are being researched to improve the performance of optical components. This article looks at the annealing process, its various types, and its importance for optical components.

annealing process, optical components

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An Introduction to the Annealing Process

Annealing is applying heat to a metal or alloy to a proper temperature for a set amount of time and then gently lowering the temperature (usually with furnace cooling). The thermal treatment method affects a material's crystalline structure to modify its electromechanical characteristics.

Advantages and Purpose of Annealing

Annealing softens steel, increases fluidity, and makes manufacturing and cold distortion processing easier. It is essential to help remove internal tension and strengthening processes to avoid bending and fracturing. Annealing and normalizing are primarily used to prepare materials for heat treatment.

Complete Annealing

Complete annealing involves heating steel above 20-30 oC. Heat retention is accomplished after a gradual cooldown (besides the furnace) to get nearer to the thermomechanical process's equilibrium (complete austenitizing). Total tempering is mainly utilized for molds of sub-eutectic steel, often medium carbon steel and low, medium carbon alloy steel.

The method helps produce refined grain with a more uniform structure. This procedure also eradicates internal stress and significant improvements in the milling process.

What is Isothermal Annealing?

Total annealing is time-consuming, mainly when the ferritic steel is more resilient. Isothermal annealing, also known as process annealing, differs somewhat from complete annealing yet creates a comparable morphology.

The annealing period can be substantially reduced if steel is chilled to a considerably lower temperature and subsequently chilled to ambient temperature. This form of annealing is known as isothermal annealing.

It is suitable for steel to have a high percentage of carbon content. However, it is not appropriate for significant sectional steel components or large volume smelting components.

A Brief Introduction of Incomplete Annealing

Insufficient annealing, also known as incomplete crystallization annealing, is a procedure that involves warming the steel to a temperature between Ac1 and Ac3 or Ac1 and AcM and then gently cooling it down to allow the steel structure to recrystallize incompletely. It is primarily used to produce round pearlite structures for hyper eutectic steel to mitigate internal stress.

What is Spheroidizing Anneal Process?

Spheroidizing, also known as spheroidizing annealing, is a technique that converts the laminae of pearlite, which is composed of iron carbide or Fe3C, into iron carbide circles.

The resultant structure is now ferrite with carbide spheres, rather than pearlite, a ferrite framework with cementite lamella. It is a thermomechanical procedure for the chemical processing of carbide in steel to create granular pearlite.

Heating is carried out to a 20-30 °C higher than Ac1. However, the retention period should not be too extended, often around 2 to 4 hours. The normalizing procedure must be avoided if glandular cementite is present in the eutectic steel.

An Introduction to Diffusion Annealing

The steel is treated to comparatively high temperatures around 1050 °C and 1300 °C during diffusion annealing. This guarantees that the diffusion processes occur sufficiently to allow the particles to cover the rather lengthy diffusion routes.

The procedure, also known as homogenizing annealing, eliminates structural inconsistency. Full annealing and normalizing are required to optimize the material after diffusion annealing.

What is the Recrystallization Annealing Process?

Intermediate annealing is another name for recrystallization annealing. It is carried out by heating the cold distortion of the alloy to the recrystallization temperature to preserve the necessary time for the distortion grain to convert into homogeneous and identical axial grains, therefore eliminating process hardness and residual stress. Recrystallization must first undergo a particular degree of mild plastic deformation before being heated over a specified temperature.

What is Stress Relief Annealing?

Steel is annealed to a temperature below Ac1 (usually 500-650 °C), insulated, and cooled with the burner. Since the stress annealing temperature is lower than A1, it does not produce organizational change. The primary goal of this procedure is to remove any remaining inside tension.

Does the Annealing Process Improve Optical Component Production?

The latest research by Martin et al. in Advanced Materials has proven the efficiency of the annealing process for the production of optical components.

The optical sensitivity of a nanostructure is determined by its composition and precise form, which is extraordinarily effective for plasmonic metals. Unfortunately, just a few plasmonic metals are accessible, limiting the spectrum range where these powerful optical effects may be used.

The team has proposed a novel alloying process followed by an annealing process. The approach relies on the coating of an Au-Ag bilayer followed by tempering at a low temperature of 300 °C, much below the melting temperatures of the constituent components. The form of the nanocrystals is preserved after annealing due to the low temperature.

This preservation of nanocrystals is not possible with ordinary high-temperature annealing, which causes nanocrystals to develop an irreversible, ill-defined wrinkly shape. This approach allows nanostructures to retain their intended optical qualities.

The researchers also tested other alloy ratios and discovered that the optical properties altered when more gold or silver was added to the combination. The new alloys reflect the whole spectrum range. The scientists believe their findings will be valuable in producing prescription lenses, holographic optical elements, and other optical components.

The novel annealing process is likely to prove helpful in manufacturing optical components. Although COVID-19 has resulted in the operational hindrance of various annealing products, due to the surge in demand for optical instruments, annealing processes shall play a vital role in fabricating optical devices.

References and Further Reading

MachineMFG, 2022. What Is Annealing. [Online] Available at: https://www.machinemfg.com/annealing/ [Accessed on 12 May 2022].

Mining.com, 2022. New annealing method maintains the structure of gold, silver in alloys. [Online] Available at: https://www.mining.com/new-annealing-method-maintains-the-structure-of-gold-silver-in-alloys/ [Accessed on 10 May 2022].

Roche, S. R., 2019. The future of optics: the industry in 2025. [Online] Available at: https://www.opticianonline.net/features/the-future-of-optics-the-industry-in-2025 [Accessed on 11 May 2022].

Aghgonbad, M. M., & Sedghi, H. (2018). Influence of annealing temperature on optical properties of zinc oxide thin films analyzed by spectroscopic ellipsometry method. Chinese Journal of Physics56(5). 2129-2138. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjph.2018.04.010

Ray, D. et al. (2022). A Low‐Temperature Annealing Method for Alloy Nanostructures and Metasurfaces: Unlocking a Novel Degree of Freedom. Advanced Materials, 2108225. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.202108225

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Ibtisam Abbasi

Written by

Ibtisam Abbasi

Ibtisam graduated from Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad with a B.S. in Aerospace Engineering. During his academic careers, he has worked on several research projects and has successfully managed several co-curricular events like International World Space Week and International Conference on Aerospace Engineering. Having one English Prose competition during his undergraduate level, Ibtisam has always been keenly interested in research, writing and editing. Soon after his graduation, he joined the AzoNetwork as a freelancer to sharpen his skills. Ibtisam loves to travel especially visiting the countryside. He has always been a sports fan and loves to watch tennis, soccer and cricket. Born in Pakistan, Ibtisam one day hopes to travel all over the world creating strong bonds of friendships and spreading the message of peace and love.


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