The design of optical filters is essential in both benchtop and handheld Raman spectroscopy instruments. In recent years, handheld devices have gained popularity for their use in forensic screening, historical research, and quality control in the pharmaceutical industry.1
Handheld Raman spectroscopy instruments, although similar in many ways to their benchtop counterparts, require additional considerations in the design of their optical components. Factors such as stability and size must be taken into account to ensure the proper functioning of the device.
To minimize the size of Raman spectroscopy equipment, reducing the number of moving parts, and using monolithic optical mounts and custom-sized optics can be effective. These techniques eliminate the need for large actuators and motorized translation stages, reducing the space required for optical mounts in the instrument.
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The temperature and environmental stability of optical components in handheld Raman spectroscopy instruments must also be considered, as these devices are often used in real-world environments with little to no control over the conditions.
Iridian Spectral Filters specializes in creating custom optical components, including filters for Raman spectroscopy. They can assist in developing filters that have the appropriate dimensions and optical properties for specific instrumentation needs.
Raman Filter Properties
In Raman spectroscopy instruments, various filters are utilized, including laser line, notch, and long- and short-wave pass filters. These filters serve two primary purposes: to eliminate residual beam transmission from the intense laser source and selectively choose the Stokes or anti-Stokes Raman signal.
When selecting filters for a handheld Raman spectroscopy instrument, it is crucial to carefully consider the desired range of properties. One of the most vital characteristics is the operating wavelength range, or cut-on and cut-off wavelengths.
Notch and bandpass filters selectively block or allow a specific bandwidth centered around a particular wavelength. For laser line filters, the central wavelength is typically matched to the laser.
The notch filter blocking spectrum for narrowband laser sources may only need to be a few nanometers wide to encompass the entire laser spectrum, but a high optical density (OD) is required because the laser intensity is usually several orders of magnitude higher than the signal contribution in Raman spectroscopy.
Another vital property of Raman spectroscopy filters is edge steepness, defined as the spectral width of the slope on the edge of the filter. Specifically for long and short-pass filters, where there is often little wavelength separation between the elastic scattering lines and Stokes or anti-Stokes to be detected, a steep edge prevents the loss of desired signals while blocking the region of unwanted light.
Other considerations include the angle of incidence of operation of the optical components in Raman spectroscopy, the polarization purity, and the beam properties of the light. Some filters may become less efficient when the laser beam becomes more cone-shaped, so it may be necessary to correct optical aberrations in the light path to achieve optimal performance.
References and Further Reading
- Sorak, D., Herberholz, L., Iwascek, S., Altinpinar, S., Pfeifer, F., & Siesler, H. W. (2012). New developments and applications of handheld raman, mid-infrared, and near-infrared spectrometers. Applied Spectroscopy Reviews, 47(2), 83–115. https://doi.org/10.1080/05704928.2011.625748
This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by Iridian Spectral Technologies.
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